Ulcer disease – symptoms and diet
Ulcer is a defect, wound in the lining of the intestinal wall. If this defect is not very deep and if it reaches only to the own muscle layer of the lining, it is called erosion. Erosions are often multiple and also as an ulcer can lead to serious bleeding.
Causes of erosions and ulcers are acute stress factors: multiple trauma, burns, major surgery, cerebral trauma, prolonged ventilation, etc.
Ulcer disease is chronic recurrent disease with multifactorial genesis. The main distortion is the disbalance between aggressive factors and protective mechanisms in the gastric mucosa. Major aggressive factors: smoking and stress leading to increased acidity of gastric juice, concentrated use of alcohol or drugs. Corticosteroids alone usually do not cause ulcers, while nosteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk 4 times, a combination of both products – 15times; helicobacter pylori – can be found in the gastric mucosa in 95% of patients with duodenal ulcer and in 70% of those with gastric ulcer, toxic and hormonal factors and others.
Without the presence of acidity and helicobacter pylori is not possible to develop an ulcer!
Is ulcer disease contagious? Can helicobacter pylori be transmitted through kissing or household contact in other ways?
Helicobacter pylori is found in over 50% of healthy people over age 50. the frequency of colonization of the gastric mucosa increases with age.
There is an increase of helicobacter pylori in inflammation (over 85% of chronic gastritis).
The wide diffusion of these bacteria including healthy population suggests that it is probably a normal inhabitant (saprophyte) in the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans. In lowering the local mucosal immunity and the impact of harmful factors, helicobacter pylori begins to multiply and can lead to inflammatory and ulcerative processes in the lining of the stomach and duodenum.
Ulcer disease symptoms
Feeling of fullness and pressure in the upper abdomen, heartburn, regurgitation.
Duodenal ulcer: Rise of pain in upper abdomen late after eating, during the night or on starve.
Gastric ulcer: Rise of pain in upper abdomen immediately after eating or pain without connection of food.
Ulcers due to NSAIDs: Often asymptomatic course with heavy bleeding!
Complications of ulcer disease
They occur frequently and harshly, without notice.
Bleeding: when you get bleeding in the stomach or duodenum, blood masses can leave the body through two outputs – the mouth or anus. Vomiting blood is called haematemesis. In passing through the intestines, the hemoglobin of blood undergoes chemical changes and stool becomes shiny and black – formed melena.
Perforation (breakthrough gastric or duodenal wall ulcer) – Sudden occurring of acute and severe pain in upper abdomen. Patients need emergency surgery. Any delay leads to a steep rise in mortality. Usually the operation in the first 6 hours leads to healing!
Penetration (penetration of the ulcer to neighboring organs), infiltration of the pancreas – there is a typical back pain. Can develop pancreatitis. Penetration of the colon – can be obtained bimucosal fistula – a communication channel between the stomach and the colon, which passes through the contents of one organ to another. In this channel in the stomach may enter stools, the patient can vomit them through the mouth – Miserere. Upon penetration into the liver, the pain radiate to the right stomach area.
Stenosis (narrowing) of the abdominal wall. When the ulcer is located on the “middle” of the stomach, the expansion of connective tissue around it “narrows” the abdominal wall in (stomach exit), the food stays in the stomach and difficult passes into the duodenum. The stomach is extended and overflowing with food. Characteristic sign of this complication is vomiting of food that patients have eaten a few days ago. Despite the large stomach, the patient loses weight because very few nutrients enter the intestine.
Cancer degradation is possible only in gastric ulcers in about 2-3% of cases! Duodenal ulcers can not become malignant prosses!
Diet in ulcer disease
Diet in patients with ulcers should be rich in proteins, mainly of animal origin. Carbohydrates should be in moderation. Limited fat in elderly people and accompanying liver, gallbladder and pancreas diseases. In these cases, the preferred fats are of plant origin. Protein – rich diet stimulates regeneratory capabilities and protective functions of gastric mucosa and also owns and expressed antiacid properties (reduces irritation of the acidic gastric juice). Patients should take smaller amounts of food, but eat more often (5-6 times a day at regular intervals).
Should not eat in large quantities because it stretches the walls of the stomach and stimulates the cells that produce gastrin and hydrochloric acid. Prohibited concentrated sugars (carbohydrates stimulate gastric secretion and acidity), smoking, taking alcohol, coffee, strong tea, hot and cold food and drinks, strong spices (garlic and black pepper). Avoid rich in cellulose products (beans, lentils, peas), immature and acidic fruits and vegetables, in general, all prohibited foods that the patients do not tolerate and exacerbate peptic ulcer.