Stasis and sludge
The intravascular microcirculatory disorders are expressed through change of the blood viscosity (internal friction), modifications in blood composition and formation of microtrombi. Viscosity raising leads to platelet aggregation and on their turn these units raise the viscosity even more. In such a way one vicious circle is received, which is the basis of many diseases that often have a lethal outcome. These are shock, myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, diffusion peritonitis, malignant tumors.
The erythrocyte aggregation has a key role in the rise of the intravascular microcirculatory disorders. The final degree of this aggregation in which agglutination of erythrocytes occurs that is irreversible and is called “sludge syndrome”. At this syndrome thick and partially homogenous aggregates of erythrocytes with vague outlines can be seen in the arterioles and capillaries. In most cases, they obstruct the vessel and lead to suspension of blood flow in this vascular area, causing stasis.
Stages of the stasis
1. Pre stasis – characterized with vessels enlargement, slowing down the blood flow and progressively filling the vessel with thick homogeneous erythrocytes cells. Peripheral plasma layer is slowly reducing and disappearing.
2. Stasis – the blood movement stops and the vessels are filled with erythrocytes concretion. Blood can move back and forth like a pendulum.
3. Post stasis – is characterized with blood flow restoration.
Complications of stasis
Diapedesis haemorrhages, necrotic changes. If the brain is affected, stasis can be fatal.
Sludge – aggregates of agglutination and homogeneous erythrocytes.
Stasis – slowing down to full stopping of the blood flow in a certain vascular area.