Polyps in the nose and larynx
Polyps are epithelial growths that develop on the mucous membranes and semi-mucosaes. The reasons for their formation are usually chronic inflammatory processes, but sometimes polyps can be tumor processes. Some chemical substances that compose nose decongestants can lead to formation of polyps when they are used uncontrollably and for a long time.
It is hyperplastic growth of the lining, usually located on a foot. Its development is associated with allergic rhinitis. The surface of the polyp is covered with normal respiratory epithelium with thickened basement membrane. Stroma is swollen. There is infiltration of eosinophilic leukocytes. Symptoms of these polyps are stuffy nose and difficult breathing. They can also cause persistent headache.
More common in men and usually is located in the nasal septum. Its surface is cushioned by a multilayered squamous epithelium, when it is located in the nasal vestibule. In the nasal cavity these polyps are covered with cylindrical epithelium. This polyp also causes breathing difficulties.
Adenoids are hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue in the walls of the nasopharynx in infants, that can lead to blockage of the upper respiratory tract. This is the “third” tonsil in children. Treatment is surgical. If not removed, may in a later age cause serious problems.
Papillary polyp is a benign tumor that often is located on the larynx. Usually it is a single reddish nodule located on the true vocal cords. Its histological structure is as squamous papilloma.
Fibroma of the larynx (vocal node)
It occurs mainly in singers and other professions where there is tension in the voice. It is therefore considered pseudotumoral or reactive process. It grows in the form of soft nodule located on the vocal cords. It is covered with multilayered squamous epithelium and in the underlying connective tissue stroma there are many blood vessels whose walls are thickened and impregnated by a substance resembling amyloid and fibrin.