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Kidney cysts – types and pictures

Kidney cysts – types and pictures

Kidney cysts are non-tumor formations, represented of plain-walled unicameral cavities, filled with fluid.

Ordinary (simple) cysts

Simple kidney cysts in most cases are single and retention in the mechanism of occurrence, caused by retention of urine. These cysts occur when there is an obstruction of any of the thousands kidney tubules and over the place of the obstruction is forming a limited extension in the shape of thin-walled sac, filled with fluid (urine). Retention cysts can reach sizes up to 3 cm in diameter, they are usually located in the upper pole of the kidney and can be found incidentally by echography. These types of kidney cysts are relatively common. In most cases they are benign and do not need treatment.

Rupture (bursting) of such a cyst is practically impossible because of at least two reasons. First, kidneys are covered by strong connective tissue capsule and lay in thick fur – coat of fatty tissue and second – the location of the kidneys (inside to the spine, in the back part of abdominal cavity) makes them maximum protected from traumatic injuries. Even if the theoretical possibility of spontaneous rupture of kidney cysts is realized (from high pressure of the liquid in it), this would not lead to any serious consequences.


Kidney cysts

Kidney cysts

Acquired cystic kidney disease

It develops as a result of prolonged hemodialysis (an artificial kidney machine) in patients with chronic renal failure. As a result of dialysis is developing a cystic degeneration in an already nonfunctional kidneys.

Polycystic kidney

This group includes the following diseases – wholesale cystic polycystic of adult type, total fine-granular polycystic of children (infantile) type, juvenile cortical polycystic and medullary polycystic (“spongy kidney”). With the exception of the last disease, all other forms are inherited (congenital) diseases. They are characterized by the development of many different – sized cysts in the kidneys, resulting in the loss of kidney function.

In autosomal dominant polycystic disease of the kidneys the average mass of the kidneys in men with high blood pressure (hypertension) is about 650ml and for women – less than 500ml. In medical literature are described polycystic kidneys with weight 7-8kg and size 45/25/20cm. Since the increase in mass of the kidney and hypertension in this disease accelerate the fatal outcome, these values are accepted as the limit of compatibility with life. Therefore, when there is an excessive growth of kidneys in patients with this genetic disorder, a certain stage of the disease is recommended for operational removal.  Kidney cysts should be treated carefully.

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