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Fibrinous pericarditis – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Fibrinous pericarditis – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

The formation of the names of diseases has certain logic.
Inflammatory diseases are indicated as followed: After the name of the tissue or the organ  add suffix “itis.” For example, the word Meningitis means inflammation of the soft meninges (meninges), pharyngitis – inflammation of the throat (pharynx), gastritis – inflammation of the stomach (gaster), duodenitis – inflammation of the duodenum (duodenum), colitis – inflammation of the colon (colon) , pyelonephritis – inflammation of the renal pelvis (pielon) glomerulonephritis – inflammation of the kidney globules (glomeruli), hepatitis – inflammation of the liver (hepar), etc. This rule also has exceptions: angina, pneumonia, etc..

Fibrinous pericarditis

Fibrinous pericarditis

Inflammation is divided into two main types: acute and chronic. The acute inflammation is characterised by the outpouring of exudate (blood, inflammatory fluid) in the outbreak of inflammation. Together with it in the inflamed area occur leukocytes (white blood cells). Their main function is to absorb and destroy microbes (the most common causes of inflammation). Depending on the composition of exudate, acute inflammation is divided into the following types: catarrhal, serous, fibrinous, purulent, haemorrhagic, gangrenous, putrefactive.

Acute fibrinous pericarditis – Histopathology
In fibrinous inflammation the outpoured fluid in the outbreak of inflammation contains a lot of fibrin. Fibrin is the first factor of the coagulation system and is located in the plasma in the form of its inactive precursor-fibrinogen. In severe course of acute inflammation, fibrinogen within the tissue becomes fibrin and covers the surface of the body as whitish (white with a tinge) coating. When this happens on the outer surface of the heart (pericardium), the disease is called fibrinous pericarditis.

The heart is located in a dense, healthy bag of connective tissue called pericardial sac. Cardiac activity consists of rhythmic alternation of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of the entire heart. During systole blood is forced from the heart arteries to all organs of the body, during diastole the heart cavities are filled with blood from large veins. During systole the heart muscle  contracts and reduces the volume of the heart, during diastole the whole heart expands and increases its size. During diastole the heart increases its volume, filling the heart sac and its surface is touched by it. During systole the heart shrinks and its surface is separated from the sac. During the next diastole heart again touches the heart sac, and in the next systole is separated from it. Fibrin is “sticky” substance. When poured on the surface of the heart in large amounts, it covers the pericardium as a thin layer of batter. During the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle, fibrin adheres to the external surface of the heart and the inner surface of the heart sac. Because it is sticky, the touch and the separation of two surfaces during cardiac activity, fibrin begins to drain as cloth (thread) on the surface of the heart and eventually obtains the characteristic appearance of “hairy”heart (cor villosum).

You can get an accurate picture of the mechanism of occurrence of this phenomenon in the following way. Chew  2-3 gums and smack until  they tender well in your mouth. Your gum is ready to experiment with when it has become the stickiest. Now remove it from your mouth and place it between your palms. Now squeeze your hands tightly one against the other and spread  the chewing gum well .Start clapping your hands slowly. Is the gum clothed between your palms? The same thing happens with cor villosum.
Fibrinous pericarditis is observed in uremia (chronic renal failure), heart failure, rheumatism, after cardiac operations, after bacterial and viral infections.

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