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Bronchopneumonia – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Bronchopneumonia – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Bronchopneumonia is an acute or chronic inflammation of the lungs, in which the alveoli and / or interstitial are affected. Pneumonias are the most common cause of death among infectious diseases.   They take the fifth place in the statistics of diseases causing death.

Bronchopneumonia

Bronchopneumonia

Causes of bronchopneumonia
In most cases it occurs because of descends (which is going down) infection of the bronchi in an acute bronchitis.  Inflammatory foci in different sizes are formed in the lung parenchym, which contain purulent exudates when there are bacterial causal. These sections are hardened, greyish in color, they could be great number or merge between each other (confluent pneumonia).

It usually affects mostly children and elderly people, because it develops due to the low body resistance and impaired defense function of the respiratory tract.

What does Bronchopneumonia consists of? - Histopathology 

Bronchopneumonia can also be secondary (complication of some other disease):
• Viral infection (influenza, measles)
• Aspiration of food or vomiting
• Obstruction of bronchus with foreign body, neoplasm and others.
• Inhalation of poisonous gases
• Major surgery
• Severe chronic diseases (tuberculosis), malnutrition
• Hipostatics – long lying after suffering stroke

Symptoms in croupous pneumonia
• The disease often begins after colds and the occurrence of labial herpes.
• Sudden onset with fever and high temperature (about one week, bad general condition);
• Cough, dyspnea (difficult breathing) with the participation of nostrils in breathing.
• Brownish-red sputa on the second day with plenty of leucocytes.
• Chest pain when breathing due to the accompanying pleurisy.
• Chest pain when breathing due to the accompanying pleurisy.
• Laboratory data - acceleration of ESR, blood count - leucocytosis (increased leucocytes),toxic granulations, eosinopenia (reduction of eosinophils), lymphopenia (reduction of lymphocytes).
• X-ray examination – thick, comparatively sharply outlined large overshadowing

Symptoms in atypical pneumonia
1. Slow start
2. Headache
3. Muscle pain (myalgia)
4. Little temperature (without fever)
5. Dry irritating cough without expectoration (spitting)
6. Weak auscultatory findings (rales almost missing)

Warning!
Lung percussion and auscultation penetrates in a depth of 5 cm. Therefore, the negative finding in an examination does not exclude atypical pneumonia. When there is an unclear case, lungs x-ray should always be made.

Complications of the bronchopneumonia
• Septic distribution to the pneumonia agents through the blood with the development of otitis, meningitis, brain abscess, endocarditis.
• Pleura damage – pleurisy, pleural effusion, pleural empyema.
• Recurrent pneumonia, affecting other lung sections.
• Chronic pneumonia
• Cardiovascular disease
• Respiratory deficiency
• Thromboembolic complications due to bed rest
• Acute renal insufficiency in dehydration

Treatment of bronchopneumonia

General events
• Physical calmness, when there is temperature – bed rest and thrombo-embolic prevention.
• Secretory means, breathing exercises, inhalation therapy (humidification)
• Treatment of heart failure
• In the presence of hypoxia, oxygen through nasal probe is given.   In the development of acute respiratory insufficiency, mechanical ventilation should be done
• Sufficient imports of liquids (depending on the increased losses due to high temperature)

Antibiotics
1. After taking bronchial secretions (sputum), unintentional treatment should immediately start without awaiting the results of bacteriological examination.
2.Targeted treatment is started after receiving the results of microbiology, according the antibiograma. If necessary the antibiotic have to be changed.
3. In severe cases, “blind” treatment of bronchopneumonia is undertaken with a combination of 2 antibiotics.

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Filed in: Respiratory System

2 Responses to “Bronchopneumonia – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment”

  1. Brock
    07.05.2011 at 23:21 #

    Your article made me understand some things. Thank you!

  2. karen millen
    28.05.2011 at 11:28 #

    Great article. Thank you to tell us more useful information. I am looking forward to reading more of your articles in the future.

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