Bladder stones in men – symptoms, causes and complications
Causes of bladder stones
Bladder stones occur mainly in people aged 50 years. Enablers for the formation of bladder stones are those diseases which create difficulty in the flow of urine. These include adenoma of the prostate gland, bladder cervix sclerosis and various strictures of the urethra. In young children is important the presence of phimosis or bladder cervix sclerosis. Stones which are formed in the renal pelvis, may be carried over to the bladder and drop in down the ureter. Regarding the chemical composition of bladder stones, they are composed mainly of phosphate and urate. This is particularly important in patients who require long time to be immobilized in bed (such as paralyzed patients) or with neurogenic bladder. Bladder stones are divided into primary and secondary. In the formation of primary stones of importance are those enablers. Secondary stones are those which were formed in the renal pelvis and thus are carried down to the bladder.
Symptoms of bladder stones
They are quite characteristic. Usually patients have painful urination, accompanied by visible haematuria (blood in urine). The hematuria usually occurs after a physical overloading, before that there was a constant trauma of the mucosa (lining) of the bladder from stones in it. Haematuria is a disturbing symptom and requires proving of the etiological factors, which lead to bladder stones. It is necessary precisely urologic examination. In the presence of painful urination, accompanied by hematuria is necessary an objective examination, ultrasound examination, survey radiography of the kidneys and bladder, and sometimes excretory urography imposed by descending cysts graph or examination of the bladder by cystoscopy.
Treatment of bladder stones
Treatment of bladder calculi should be etiologically, ie to remove an obstacle that has led to the formation of stones or just eliminating any obstruction such as adenoma, cervicalsclerosis and others. Thus, bladder lithiasis will not recur. In some patients there is a single stone in the bladder, without establishing objective signs of obstruction (blockage). In this case a transurethral lithotripsy (through the urethra) should be performed. Lithotripsy is break of the stones by ultrasonic waves. After this procedure is necessary all small particles to be evacuated from the bladder.
Complications of bladder stones
Complications caused by bladder stones can be local and systemic. Local complication is damage of the mucous lining of the bladder by mechanical impact of the stone. In the damaged mucosa can more easily enter microorganisms that cause inflammation of the bladder wall. In these cases, patients’ symptoms are growing, occur dark urine and fever. Systemic complications are due to obstruction of the urethra, which leads to a sudden stop to urination (anuria) and occurance of severe pain.