Arterial hypotension – treatment and symptoms
For normal lower limit of systolic blood pressure in adults can be taken 100 – 105mmHg. Hypotension (low blood pressure) is present in systolic value under 100 – 105mmHg.
Mechanism of the formation of blood pressure:
- Systolic blood pressure (upper limit) is formed from a heart stroke volume and depends on the strength of cardiac contraction. The main function of the heart muscle is pumping. In each of its systole (contraction), the heart pushes blood to all organs and tissues of the body. In diastole (relaxation and widening), the heart fills with blood from large venous vessels that drain into the atrium. Rotation of systole and diastole in a rhythmic sequence is typical for normal functioning heart. The smaller is the strength of cardiac contraction, the lower is the upper value of blood pressure.
- Diastolic blood pressure (lower limit) depends on the condition of the peripheral arterial vessels of small caliber. This value of blood pressure has nothing to do with heart function. At the moment of registration of the lower limit of blood pressure, the heart is relaxed and is in diastole. Thus, this value coincides with the diastole and therefore is called “diastolic”. When peripheral arterial vessels are dilated (vasodilation), diastolic blood pressure is lowered.
Hypotension as an illness develops only when the regulatory mechanisms of blood circulation in rest and during exercise are insufficient to maintain adequate blood pressure in the brain and kidneys. Autoregulation of cerebral irrigation helps to maintain a consistent conditions for the functioning of the brain in systolic pressure of 70 to 180mmHg. This peculiarity of the brain circulation ensures a constant flow of blood for the most important organ in the human body. In the presence of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels of the brain, autoregulation is inefficient. In these cases, the sudden drop in blood pressure can lead to ischemic stroke. So dramatic download (by drugs) on blood pressure in older patients may cost them their lives!
Types of arterial hypotension:
І. Orthostatic hypotension occurs in sudden stand up and is obtained as a result of efflux in low – lying parts of the body (abdomen and lower limbs).
ІІ. Essential (primary) hypotension occurs mostly in thin (and tall) women. Reduced physical activity and stress are factors conducive to the expression of hypotension.
ІІІ. Secondary (symptomatic) hypotension is the one which is due some other disease. The reason for it is the “other” disease. Symptomatic hypotension develops most often in:
- Endocrine disease (adrenal insufficiency in – Addison’s disease or pituitary insufficiency – Simonds disease).
- Cardiovascular hypotension (valvular defects, pulmonary embolism, arrhythmias).
- Infectious – toxic (infectious diseases)
- Drug – induced hypotension (when taking diuretics, antidepressants, antiarrhythmic and anti -ischemic drugs).
- Immobilization and long lying in bed, heavy blood loss, dehydration (prolonged vomiting and diarrhea), varices and thrombophlebitis.
Symptoms of hypotension:
- Powerless, easy and quick fatigue, morning long “time to work”, impaired ability to concentrate.
- Headache, tinnitus.
- Cardiac symptoms – palpitations, tightness and chest pain.
- Depression, inner disturbance, sleep disorders.
- Cold hands and feet.
- Dizziness when rising from bed, bending or blackout the eyes, collapse (these are sudden drop in blood pressure with obscuration of consciousness or momentary loss).
Treatment of hypotension:
- All reasonable therapeutic methods to increase blood pressure are related to the infusion of energy in the body and to increase the blood volume.
- Frequent baths (hydrotherapy), rejuvenating massages, swimming, running and more physical activity, regular exercise.
- Taking large amount of liquids – salted yogurt mixed with water, milk, soft drinks (sweetened with sugar and/or glucose – fructose syrop, not artificial sweeteners!). The most efficient is coca cola, juices, fresh, soda. Excessive consumption of coffee is not reccomended because it has a diuretic efect!
- Increased intake of salt (salty foods, crackers, salty cheese) Warning! This measure does not apply in heart failure!
- Sleeping on a high pillow(which elevates to20 degrees the upper part of the body) reduces production of urine during the night and morning prevents orthostatic reaction.
- When patient collapses, lift and hold his legs in high position! It is not necessary you to keep them in the air. Lift them on a chair, pillows or whatever you have handy.
If you apply these procedures every day for at least a month, your blood pressure will be affected significantly.